# NCERT Solutions For Class 8

Class 8 is a very important year in each student’s life. This is a pre-step to going mature as far as age is concerned and regarding the study, this is the year to concentrate more. The ambitious students may want to use this opportunity to learn good Sanskrit and try to achieve full marks. Class 8 is a good chance to make most to get high scores.

To help students get good marks, NCERT Solutions for Class 8 is a very good option as the answers are arranged as per the syllabus and by the field experts. One can avail of high marks by studying the solutions along with the textbooks. Here, we will see what is on offer from NCERT –

## Mathematics

Chapter-wise summary

Chapter 1 – Rational Numbers

This is an introductory chapter on rational numbers which covers basic to advanced concepts of rational numbers. The students can learn about whole numbers and natural numbers. The whole numbers are denoted with ‘W’ and the natural numbers with ‘N’. A rational number is represented as a fraction of two integers in the form of p/q.

This chapter also consists of the following properties of rational numbers – closure property, cumulative property, distributive property, negatives & reciprocals, representation of rational numbers on a number line, and rational numbers between the two rational numbers.

Chapter 2 – Linear Equations in One Variable

This chapter about variables teaches transposition from one side of the equation to the other side like numbers. by equating the equation by multiplication the equation is brought into a linear form. The chapter also teaches to perform mathematical operations on an equation, solve a linear equation on one side and the numbers on the other, equations with variables on both sides, applications, variables & constants, algebraic equations, and linear equations in one variable.

A polygon with four sides, four angles, and four vertices with two diagonals is called a quadrilateral. Students can understand the types of quadrilaterals like square, rhombus, parallelogram, rectangle, kite, and trapezium. The students will also get to learn polygons, curves, classification of polygons basis the number of sides/vertices, shape, regularity, angle sum property, properties of parallelogram like elements, angles, and diagonals, rectangles, and squares.

Chapter 4 – Practical Geometry

In this chapter, students can learn the construction of quadrilateral, four sides and one diagonal, construction of quadrilaterals with different measures of sides and angles, SSS construction, construction of quadrilateral when one diagonal and four sides are given, when three sides and two diagonals are given, when three angles and two adjacent sides are given, when two included angles and three sides are given.

Chapter 5 – Data Handling

Data handling is the procedure to organize the information given to perform mathematical operations on them. It consists of Pie charts, how to create Pie charts, raw data, pictographs, bar graphs, tally marks, grouped data, random experiments, histograms, experiments & outcomes, equally likely outcomes, experimental probability, and probability of an event.

Chapter 6 – Squares and Square Roots

This chapter teaches students about perfect squares, properties of square numbers, finding the square of a number with unit’s place 5, square root of a number, estimating the square root, finding a square of a number, interesting patterns, a square of an odd number as a sum, product of two consecutive even or odd natural numbers, and finding Pythagorean triplets for any given number.

Chapter 7 – Cubes and Cube Roots

The numbers 1, 8, and 27 are the cubes of the numbers 1, 2, and 3 respectively. The students can learn cubes relation with cube numbers, unit digits in cube numbers, the addition of consecutive odd numbers, the prime factorization method to find a cube, cube roots, cube root using prime factorization, cube root of a cube number using estimation, and differences of squares of triangular number & converse.

Chapter 8 – Comparing Quantities

This chapter teaches fractions & ratios, finding an increase or decrease percentages in situations, finding SP without finding discount percentage, estimation of amounts in percentage, finding discounts, prices/charges related to buying & selling, sales tax VAT, simple & compound interest, compound interest calculation, and rate compounded annually/half yearly.

Chapter 9 – Algebraic Expressions and Identities

The expressions made up of variables and constants along with mathematical operations are called algebraic expressions. It does not have sides or equal to signs like algebraic equations. In this chapter, the students can learn terms, factors, coefficients, like terms, monomial, binomial, polynomial, addition & subtraction of algebraic expressions, multiplication of monomials, distributive property of monomials, and multiplication of any polynomial.

Chapter 10 – Visualising Solid Shapes

Squares, circles, and triangles are two-dimensional shapes where there are only two dimensions and no thickness. The students will learn about the concept of various shapes and their features, the area & volume of 2-D shapes, three dimensional solid objects, hexagon, non-polyhedrons, polyhedrons, solid cuboids, solid triangular prism, solid hexagonal prism, solid cylinders, solid spheres, solid cone, hollow cuboid, hollow triangular prism, hollow hexagonal prism, hollow cylinder, hollow cone, pyramid, and types of polyhedrons.

Chapter 11 – Mensuration

Mensuration is a study of different types of geometrical shapes along with their volume, length, perimeter, and area. It is based on algebraic equations and geometric calculations. The students will learn the volume of a 3D object, the volume of a cube, the volume of a cylinder, the identification of shapes, and the areas of different regular figures.

Chapter 12 – Exponents and Powers

The power of a number indicates the number of times it is multiplied. This chapter explains the theory of exponents and power in a mathematical equation, the powers with negative exponents, visualize power & exponents, expand a rational number using power, exponents with like bases, power of a power, exponents with unlike bases & same exponents, inter-conversion between standard and normal forms, and comparison of quantities using exponents.

Chapter 13 – Direct and Indirect Proportions

In this chapter, the students will learn about inverse & direct proportions, and the relation between inverse proportion, time & work. the students can understand that if the value of the variable increases or decreases upon a relevant decrease or increase in the value of variable then the relation between the two is inversely proportional.

Chapter 14 – Factorization

An expression can be factorized into the products of its factors. These factors may be variables, algebraic expressions, and numbers. the chapter describes the division of a monomial by another monomial, division of a polynomial by a monomial, division of a polynomial by a polynomial, factors of natural numbers, factors of algebraic expression & factorization, method of common factors, method of identities, factorization using algebraic identities, and visualization of factorization.

Chapter 15 – Introduction to Graphs

In this chapter, students will learn different types of graphical representations of data. Any data can be very effectively organized to understand it better. The students can learn about bar graphs, Pie charts, linear graphs, histograms, Cartesian plain & coordinate axes, application of graphs, and representation of points on the plane.

Chapter 16 – Playing With Numbers

Numbers play a very important and critical role in mathematics. The students can understand what is numbers, numbers in general form, reversing the two-digit numbers & adding them, reversing the two-digit numbers & subtracting them, reversing the three-digit numbers & subtracting them, a combination of three numbers, letters for digits, and divisibility.

## Science

Chapter-wise summary

Chapter 1 – Crop Production and Management

The students will learn about two basic types of crops, ‘Kharif’ and ‘Rabi’, the preparation of soil, tilling or ploughing hoe, cultivator, traditional tools, quality of seeds, nursery, adding manure & fertilizers, seed drill, germination of seeds, disadvantages of using fertilizers, leaving the land fallow, crop rotation, protection from weeds, manual removal, harvesting & its methods, storage, granaries, and animal husbandry.

Chapter 2 – Microorganisms: Friend and Foe

Microorganisms are too small to be seen with naked eyes. The students can learn the major types of bacteria, protozoa, algae, and fungi. The students will gain knowledge about Probiotics, fermentation, viruses, antibiotics, vaccines, carriers, pathogens, airborne diseases, vectors, plant diseases, waterborne diseases, food preservation, food poisoning, use of common salt, chemical methods, preservation by oil & vinegar, preservation by sugar, storage & packing, nitrogen cycle, and pasteurization.

Chapter 3 – Synthetic Fibers and Plastic

This chapter includes the different types of synthetic fibers, characteristics & information about plastic and its uses, concept of fiber, polymer, natural fiber, synthetic fiber, nylon, rayon, silk, thermoplastics, acrylic fiber, polyester, characteristics of plastic, biodegradable & non-biodegradable materials, and environmental effects on plastic.

Chapter 4 – Materials: Metals and Non-Metals

In this chapter, the students will know about the physical properties of non-metals & metals, chemical properties of metals, reactivity series, the reaction of metals with water/steam, the reaction of metals with acid, reaction with other metal salts, electronic configuration of metals & non-metals, physical properties of ionic compounds, melting & boiling point of ionic compounds, the solubility of ionic compounds, extraction of metals, and applications of metals & non-metals.

Chapter 5 – Coal and Petroleum

Energy is extracted from natural sources in many forms and can be transferred from one body to another in the form of heat r work. the types of energy, energy conversion, fossil fuels, energy used from fossil fuels, types of coal, a destructive distillation of coal, coal tar, coal gas, ammonia liquor, coke, oil wells & reservoirs, extraction of oils, characteristics of oil reservoirs, fractional distillation, crude oil boiling point & vaporization, natural gas, use of products, and CNG & its advantages.

Chapter 6 – Combustion and Flame

The burning of wood is combustion. In this chapter, the students will learn about combustible & non-combustible substances, fuel, ignition temperature, inflammable substances, the fire triangle, structure of flame, types of combustion, fire control & extinguisher, calorific value & efficiency of fuel, harmful products from burning of fuel, CO emission, unburnt carbon particles, acid rain, clean fuel CNG, and global warming.

Chapter 7 – Conservation of Plants and Animals

From this chapter, the students will learn about extinction of a species, conservation of various plants & animals, deforestation & its causes, consequences of deforestation, conservation of forest & wildlife, wildlife sanctuary, flora & fauna, biosphere & biodiversity, endemic species, biosphere reserve, project tiger, endangered animals, ecosystem, red data book, and migration.

Chapter 8 – Cell Structure and Functions

Cells are the fundamental structural units of living organisms and the basic unit of life. The students can learn about prokaryotic & eukaryotic cells, the cell structure of eukaryotic cells, cell membrane, cytoplasm, cell walls in plants, organelles, nucleus, chromosomes, DNA, vacuoles, endoplasmic reticulum, rough & smooth ER, lysosomes, mitochondria, and plastids.

Chapter 9 – Reproduction in Animals

There is a rise in offspring as it is essential for the continuation of a species. Sexual & asexual reproduction, fission, budding, cell division, mitosis, meiosis, male reproductive system in humans, sperms, testosterone, female reproduction system in humans, estrogen, ovum, and fertilization.

Chapter 10 – Reaching the Age of Adolescence

Adolescence is the period of life when the body undergoes changes leading to reproductive maturity. The details in this chapter include puberty, secondary sexual characteristics in boys & girls, reproductive health, endocrine glands, hormones, pituitary glands, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal glands, menstrual cycle, sex determination, personal hygiene, balanced diet, physical exercise, and negative effects of the drug.

Chapter 11 – Force and Pressure

The force has a direction and magnitude and the strength of the force is expressed in magnitude. The chapter tells about the concept of push, magnetic force, pull, frictional force, net force, state of motion, application of force, vector, contact force, muscular force, gravitational force, non-contact force, nuclear force, electrostatic force, distribution of pressure, thrust & pressure, upthrust, pressure in fluids, atmospheric pressure, and gaseous pressure.

Chapter 12 – Friction

Friction force opposes relative motion between the two surfaces in contact. It acts on the surface of both bodies. From this chapter, the students will learn relative motion, cause of friction, surface irregularities, adhesive forces, plowing effect, factors affecting friction, nature of surface & contact, calculation of frictional force with a spring balance, polishing the surfaces to reduce friction, normal reaction force, static friction, kinetic friction, how friction produces heat, applications of friction, rolling & using treads to change friction, and drag force.

Chapter 13 – Sound

Because of sound, we can listen to music. Vibrating objects produce sound. This chapter will teach the students about introduction to waves, particle motion of waves, transverse waves, longitudinal waves, introduction to sound waves, the human ear, amplitude, frequency & time period of vibrations, loudness and pitch, audible & inaudible sound, noise & music, and noise pollution & measures to control it.

Chapter 14 – Chemical Effects of Electric Current

Metals show conductance and non-conductance to electricity. Metals like aluminum and copper are good conductors of electricity. In this chapter, the students will learn the concept of utilization of metals for electricity, chemical effects of electric current, insulator, conductor, conducting liquid, electric circuit, electrodes & electrolytes, conduction of electricity in the water, electroplating, and applications of electroplating.

Chapter 15 – Some Natural Phenomena

Earthquakes and lightning are natural phenomena and cause huge damage. These damages must be reduced by taking appropriate measures. This chapter will teach students the dynamics of the natural phenomena, method of charging, charging by rubbing, charged objects, the interaction between like and unlike charges, the convention of positive & negative charges, electroscope, transfer of charges, lightning & safety, earthing, discharged objects, seismic waves, causes of an earthquake, and protection from the earthquake.

Chapter 16 – Light

When the light from an object reaches our eyes, we can see that object. The students will study how do we see objects, laws of reflection, ray diagrams, regular & diffused reflection, image formation of a plane mirror, the difference between the real & virtual image, calculation of a total number of images, multiple reflections, functions of different organs in the human eye, dispersion of light, visual defects, and Braille system.

Chapter 17 – Stars and the Solar System

The bodies present in the universe are called celestial bodies. Astronomy is a branch of science that is the study of celestial bodies and relevant processes. Change in shape of the moon in one such process. The chapter consists of the logic of celestial bodies, the moon & its different phases, understanding the phases of the moon, the dark side of the moon, the surface of the moon, pole star, stars, light year, constellations, celestial objects, the solar system, orbit, meteors & meteorites, and artificial satellites.

Chapter 18 – Pollution of Air and Water

Pollution is an unwanted change that affects plants, animals, and food. Various pollutants contaminate air and water which causes multiple diseases. This chapter states the causes of contamination & its effects on our life, the criticality of air & water, air pollutants, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, sulfur & nitrogen, greenhouse gases, smog, water pollution, effects of global warming, effects of water pollution on the holy river Ganga, types of water, and chlorination of water.

## English

Honeydew Prose

Chapter-wise summary

Chapter 1 – The Best Christmas Present in the World

This chapter is about a loving couple Jim and Connie. These two souls, on the backdrop of war between Germans, and British, always longed to meet. With the description of war, the author also pours some nice moments between the soldiers who despite war wish a merry Christmas to each other. The story is about a letter in one of the drawers of an old roll-top desk author bought from the market. author fulfilled Jim’s wish to deliver the letter to his wife Connie. The story gives a lesson to keep humanity above everything even in the worst situation.

Chapter 2 – The Tsunami

This chapter narrates the stories of the Andaman and Nicobar islands where the tsunami hit badly. The students will learn about horrible incidents during the tsunami from which many survived but most died. Here, the stories of Ignesious, Meghana, Sanjeev, and Almas are elaborated. The stories from Thailand include Tilly and her family, and the last part states the sixth sense of animals as many animals stayed away from the beach that day and saved themselves and their masters.

Chapter 3 – Glimpses of the Past

This chapter tells about the different stages of British governed India. In 1757, East India Company was in a very strong position in India. The internal wars between various Princes in India gave an opportunity to the Company to take over the reign as the Princes wanted the Company to support them. This allowed the Company to gain access to almost all the empires in India. The chapter tells about the period 1765-1836, Raja Ram Mohan Roy, oppression (1765-1835), dissatisfaction (1835-36), the revolt of 1857, and the freedom fight thereafter.

Chapter 4 – Bepin Choudhury’s Lapse of Memory

From this chapter, the students will learn never to believe an unknown person or the one you do not trust much. A small thought of uncertainty can destroy self-belief and a well-set schedule. This is a comical suspense story of Bepin Choudhury who is trapped in the web of a person who wants to set a score against him. Chunilal traps Bepin through an unknown person and a person whom both Chunilal and Bepin know. Bepin is tricked by Chunilal to such an extent that Bepin starts doubting his memory is lost.

Chapter 5 – The Summit Within

In this chapter, the students will learn about Major H.P.S. Ahluwalia was a member of the first successful Indian expedition to Mount Everest in 1965. Here, he narrates his experiences, feeling of joy and sorrow together, other summits, why they chose Everest, leadership, and work in unity. Finally, he compares the physical summit with the summit within. He states that if you overcome the summit within, it probably gives more happiness than conquering Mount Everest.

Chapter 6 – This is Jody’s Fawn

Jody’s father killed the doe for the treatment of a snake bite. Knowing this, Jody is worried about the future of the fawn and insists to bring it home to raise it. He even offers that his mother doesn’t have to make additional food as he is ready to feed fawn, part of his milk. The story slowly unfolds the humanity of Jody toward the fawn who is left alone and might die of starvation.

Chapter 7 – A Visit to Cambridge

Stephan Hawking is a great personality despite being physically challenged. The chapter tells students about his interview taken by another disabled person, the author. Both opine that the question of being strong despite disability irritates them and they want to discuss something more important. At the end of the interaction, Mr. Hawking tells that he went on with the inner voice that advised him to concentrate on what he is good at and this led to him being a successor of Issac Newton.

Chapter 8 – A Short Monsoon Diary

These are a few extracts from Ruskin Bond’s diary. The excerpts talk about the beautiful and ever-changing nature during the monsoon. The narrator explains the nature in his diary on some specific dates like June 24, June 25, June 26, August 2, August 3, August 12, August 31, October 3, January 26, and March 23. There are very short descriptions of these days in his diary.

Chapter 9 – The Great Stone Face I

This chapter tells about the childhood and growing Ernest. The people of his area knew a Great Stone Face which resembled a human face from a distance. Ernest was in awe of it and developed an affection for it. He wanted to be like it someday, ever smiling. As he grew, his dream came true as people started to recognize him as the Great Stone Face due to his kindness and helping nature.

Chapter 10 – The Great Stone Face II

This chapter is the next part of the previous one in which Ernest; the Great Stone Face finds his replica in an author from the same area as his. He thought the budding author to become Great Stone Face now but as both met; the budding author found that he is way behind becoming Great Stone Face as Ernest, in his view, was still a Great Stone Face.

### Honeydew Poems

Chapter wise summary

Chapter 1 – The Ant and the Cricket

The cricket enjoys all the pleasant months of spring and summer but is scared of survival in winter. This is because he had made no attempts to secure him from the cold winter. This poem compares cricket with human beings as some people do not plan the future and in critical situations seek help from others. (An ant in the poem) Obviously, other people deny them help as they have just enjoyed earlier and not secured their critical period.

Chapter 2 – Geography Lesson

The poem puts forward the thought that it is easy to understand Geography from height. The examples are given for reference and those are of a city from the same height and the plane as it rises to the sky. The poet states that it is easy to understand why water and land attract more population. The students can learn the moral that the logic of Geography from height is simple but it is difficult to understand why humans hate each other.

Chapter 3 – Macavity: The Mystery Cat

This poem is about a cat called ‘Macavity’, who is a great criminal. Also called a ‘Hidden Paw’ he is a lawbreaker, human and nature as well. He floats in the air without support such that even ‘Flying Squad’ is unable to nab him. The poem concludes by saying that evil is everywhere but as it is time to catch him, he is nowhere.

Chapter 4 – The Last Bargain

This poem speaks about a person seeking a job but without compromising his freedom. He is approached for a job by one powerful, one beautiful, and one rich person but denies them all as they want something in return. Finally, his wishes are fulfilled by a child who has no expectations from him as he helps him. The person is happy to help the child as he is still free.

Chapter 5 – The School Boy

This poem is through a child’s mouth that wants to be happy in nature’s lap but is forced to go to school and lose his childhood under his parent’s expectations. He is in awe of sunny morning and attractive evening but neither of them comes his way. The poet compares such childhood with a caged bird and concludes that if childhood misses happiness, a winter of sorrow will follow.

Chapter 6 – The Duck and the Kangaroo

This poem is about a duck and a kangaroo. The duck wants to ride the kangaroo’s back and see the world having bored in the pond. The kangaroo disagrees basis the duck’s cold feet and fear of getting rheumatism. The duck already has a solution as he has four pairs of worsted socks to keep warm. Knowing this, the kangaroo is happy and they both take a nice trip of three rounds of the world.

Chapter 7 – When I Set Out For Lyonnesse

This poem of Thomas Hardy is about his trip to Parish which proved to be a very fruitful trip. He was glowing with inner shining and also carried a piece of paper which was a draft of a current poem. The poet never thought the journey to the restoration of a church would change him so positively.

Chapter 8 – On the Grasshopper and Cricket

The poem states about nature’s contrast between seasons and birds. Grasshopper comes out in hot summer whereas cricket symbolizes very cold winter. As earth always keeps on singing, the changing nature changes the routine of birds and insects. The poem symbolizes the balance of nature as the contrast compliments.

## Social Science

History: Our Past – III

Chapter-wise summary

Chapter 1 – How, When, and Where

This chapter will let students know about the incidences and main activities in the country in the past. It is important to memorize the exact dates of some prominent activities in history. The chapter will explain the dates, how to periodize, what is colonial, administration procedure records, the importance of surveys, and hidden truths per official records.

Chapter 2 – From Trade to Territory the Company Establishes Power

This chapter explains the advent of European power in India. The chapter tells about the death and subsequent fall of the Mughal empires and the disintegration of Nawabs. Here, the students can learn about the establishment and growth of the East India Company which was allowed only for trade but took over the reign. The battles of Plassey and Buxer, the establishment of the first factory near Hooghly River, the introduction of the land revenue system, and the spread of the East India Company across the nation.

Chapter 3 – Ruling the Countryside

The takeover of Bengal by East India Company is explained in this chapter. The students will know about the Diwani Rule by Robert Clive and the takeover of Bihar and Orissa. The following topics are also part of this chapter – the Munro system, crops for Europe, the revenue of EIC, the problem with Nij cultivation, and the cultivation of Indigo.

Chapter 4 – Tribals, Dikus, and the Vision of a Golden Age

There were different categories of people viz tribals, shifting cultivators, and herders. Europeans were called ‘Dikus’ by the locals and they faced a lot of problems due to invasion from outsiders. The students will learn about the local leader Birsa Munda and his revolt against the Europeans for the lands of the tribals. Students will also get knowledge about tribals group’s lifestyles, jhum cultivators, hunters & gatherers, animal herding, settled cultivation, problems of tribal chiefs, shifting of cultivators, forest laws, and problems with the trade.

Chapter 5 – When People Rebel: 1857 and After

This chapter speaks about the decreasing power of Nawabs, conditions of Indian peasants & sepoys, discrimination of sepoys, and the revolt of 1857. The students will learn the important phases of the country like policies & the people, what people thought of as masses, popular rebellion, EIC’s fight back, and its aftermath.

Chapter 6 – Weavers, Iron Smelters, and Factory Owners

The weavers and iron smelters exercise their livelihood under colonial rule. Here, the export of Indian cloth to Europe, the suppression of Indian weavers by the British Textile industry, and the role of TISCO are discussed. The students will know that India was a strong exporter of cloth to the European market and traded till the company took over. Thereafter the Indian weavers were made to beg for their rights and denied business anymore.

Chapter 7 – Civilising the ‘Native’, Educating the Nation

This chapter speaks about the British involvement in the Indian education system. The British insisted to terminate previous teaching systems and wanted the people to learn English for their benefit. This led to the diversion and extinction of the old Indian traditional education system. the British, however, faced some major threats from people who were educated in English but understood the aim of the Company and stood against its ruling.

Chapter 8 – Women, Cast, and Reform

This chapter deals with the reform in favor of women, anti-casteism, and other relevant topics. Students will study how gender inequality was there in India. The students can learn about the sorrow of widows, illiteracy among girl children, and the pathetic condition of the lower caste people. The vital roles of Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Jyoti Rao Phule in reforming the education structure for girls are also discussed.

Chapter 9 – The Making of the National Movement: 1870s-1947

This chapter is about the beginning and process of the freedom fight against British rule. The students will understand how nationalist’s woke up and started to unite for the fight against enslavement, the role of Congress in the freedom fight, the impact of the 1st and 2nd World Wars, different thought processes among the freedom fighters, and a lot of different agitations in the country.

Chapter 10 – India after Independence

This chapter speaks about Independence Day on 15th August 1947, subsequent partition, problems of refugees, princely states, and the poor economic states. The students can also learn about the writing of several laws, the formation of the constitution of India, unity in diversity, sovereignty, and the formation of states after independence.

## Geography: Resources and Development

Chapter-wise summary

Chapter 1 – Resources

In this chapter, the students will learn about natural and man-made resources. The types of resources available on the earth and the current status of these resources are also discussed. The students will also understand the importance of the conservation of the current resources.

Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources

Soil, land, and water are abiotic and the most important resources.  Biotic resources are natural vegetation and wildlife resources. There is a need to maintain abiotic and biotic resources longer, it is important to enhance the judicial use of these resources. The land covers 30 percent of the earth’s area and 90 percent of the population is spread only over 30 percent of this area.

Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources

Minerals are naturally occurring substances with definite chemical compositions. They are formed in different geological conditions. These are non-renewable resources and are defined basis their hardness color, density, and chemical properties such as solubility. The students will learn about the types of minerals based on composition, classification into metallic and non-metallic types, properties of both metallic and non-metallic minerals, conventional sources, and non-conventional sources of minerals.

Chapter 4 – Agriculture

Agriculture is the science of farming with the cultivation of the soil and growing the crops. It also includes the rearing of animals for food, wool, and other products. The students can learn the two types of farming, subsistence and shifting cultivation. The chapter also discusses nomadic herding, commercial farming, mixed farming, major crops, plantations, and agricultural development.

Chapter 5 – Industries

Industrial operations include the production of goods, extraction of minerals, or the provision of services. The students can learn about primary sectors, secondary sectors, tertiary sectors, size of industries, raw materials, large scale industries, small scale industries, factors affecting the location of industries, and development of industries.

Chapter 6 – Human Resource

Human resource is the biggest resource in its type. Human resources can build and help grow the nation generously. But the development does not directly depend on the population but it is related to the skill. If the high population is encouraged to be skilled, the development will be faster.

## Civics: Social and Political Life – II

Chapter-wise summary

Chapter 1 – The Indian Constitution

The students can learn the following key features of the Indian constitution –

• Separation of powers: Judiciary, legislation, and executive
• Federalism: the existence of more than one level of the government.
• Secularism: a country promoting religious freedom for all citizens.
• Parliamentary form of government: the right to vote for each citizen irrespective of caste or religion.
• Fundamental rights: six major fundamental rights for every citizen.

Chapter 2 – Understanding Secularism

This chapter discusses the fundamental rights of religious freedom. A secular country allows all citizens to choose their religion as there is no pressure to adopt a particular religion. The students will understand the importance of secularism and they will know how to develop a ‘country first’ mindset. This chapter will help students to understand the concept of secularism and the fundamental rights of religion.

Chapter 3 – Why Do We Need a Parliament

The functions of the parliament and its connection to the idea of elections and democracy are very important for a democratic country. The students will learn how people have a choice to elect their representatives and the importance of parliament. Parliament is the expression of faith that the people of India have democratic principles. The parliament consists of a President, Lok Sabha, and Rajya Sabha. Indian parliament is also engaged in making laws for the country.

Chapter 4 – Understanding Laws

This chapter will tell students the importance of laws and how the constitution set the rules and laws common for everyone. The difference between the British laws and those after independence is also discussed. Major laws like the law against domestic violence are discussed too.

Chapter 5 – Judiciary

In this chapter, the students will learn about the judiciary system and how it works. the chapter discusses the situations of law and order and what are common men’s rights in those situations. It speaks about dispute resolution, judicial review, upholding the law, and enforcing fundamental rights.

Chapter 6 – Understanding Our Criminal Justice System

The students can learn the following from this chapter –

• First information report: FIR initiates the police investigation for a lodged complaint.
• Article 22 of the constitution and criminal law states the fundamental rights of an arrested person.
• Fair trial
• Role of police: certain procedures must be followed during an investigation to make an arrest, interrogation, and detention of a person.
• Role of the public prosecutor: post-filing the charge sheet, the public prosecutor can fight the case in court.

Chapter 7 – Understanding Marginalization

Social, Economic, Cultural, and Political factors lead to the marginalization of certain groups. It is exclusion from the socio-economic society. It can happen due to various reasons including the poor or low communal status of a particular group. There are a lot of marginalized communities that self-declare themselves.

Chapter 8 – Confronting Marginalization

This chapter talks about Muslims, Dalits, women, and Adivasis considered to be marginalized –

• Laws for the marginalized.
• Invoking fundamental rights
• Adivasis demand and the 1989 Act
• Protecting the rights of Adivasis and Dalits
• The scheduled caste and scheduled tribe

Chapter 9 – Public Facilities

The government is bound to provide the following facilities to its citizens –

• Water is a fundamental right
• Schools, colleges, transport, etc are necessary for the growth of the nation.
• Safe water is also a public facility to keep the good health of people below the poverty line.
• Education for all

Chapter 10 – Law and Social Justice

To protect people from exploitation and keep unfair practices to a minimum, the government enforces some laws. Every person has the right to exploitation and it applies to all citizens.

## Hindi Vasant

Chapter-wise summary

Chapter 1 – ध्वनि (कविता ) सूर्यकांत त्रिपाठी निराला:

This poem is written by ‘Nirala’ Surya Kant Tripathi and it explains how nature metaphor for human emotions. The beautiful spring indicates the youth of human life and the buds of flowers are used to describe the unhappy people in the world. He also describes how the sun brings the light of happiness to people. The poet has used free and non-rhyming verses in this short poem.

Chapter 2 – लाख की चूडियाँ (कहानी) – कामतानाथ:

This story is about the author’s childhood when he used to visit his uncle’s place. He was very fond of bangles made from a particular material ‘lakh’. The story is of bangle-maker Badlu who is called ‘Kaka’ by the whole village. He makes the bangles and sells them to feed his family. This chapter will also highlight the effect of modernization on handicraft workers.

Chapter 3 – बस की यात्रा (व्यंग) – हरिशंकर परसाई:

This travel chapter is written by Harishankar Parsai. The story tells the students how corporation makes gross mistakes in transport facilities and their effect on the villagers. The bus was in very poor condition but all travelers were helpless. Finally, they all decided to be happy whatever the situation is and rode the bus along.

Chapter 4 – दीवानों की हस्ती (कविता) – भगवतीचरण वर्मा:

This poem by Bhagwati Charan Verma is from the pre-independence period when some people were nonchalant and always spread happiness come whatever may. Though India was ruled under British cruelty, such people kept the ray of hope enlightening to encourage many others who were depressed. These people, rightly mentioned as ‘Deewane’, bare the torch of happiness throughout the country. The students will learn how to spread happiness and help others despite critical situations.

Chapter 5 – चिट्ठियों की अनूठी दुनिया (निबंध) – अरविंद कुमार सिंह:

This chapter is an essay by Arvind Kumar Singh and is about the importance of letters in one’s life. The students will experience the attachment of the writer with the letters which are not only a communication medium but engulfed with a lot of emotions too. Today’s students will not understand those feelings as the modes of communication are more digital. This essay will take students to the old era where letters were the prime medium of communication.

Chapter 6 – भगवान के डाकिए (कविता) – रामधारी सिंहदिनकर’:

This poem by popular writer Ramdhari Singh Dinkar compares the birds and clouds with the postmen. The poet labels them the messengers of God. The birds migrate taking the message of nature to the other part of the world and clouds pass the message in the form of rain. These messages from the two postmen of God are better understood by plants, trees, mountains, and water than the human being.

Chapter 7 – क्या निराश हुआ जाए (निबंध) – हजारी प्रसाद द्विवेदी:

This chapter tells about the human nature of getting depressed and disappointed frequently. The author says that one must not bog down in any critical situation and keep his mind focused on the target. Each person gets cheated some time or the other and it is inevitable. He sets his example of how he went through a similar situation but stayed strong to come out of it.

Chapter 8 – यह सबसे कठिन समय नहीं (कविता) – जया जादवानी:

This poem written by Jaya Jadvani tells about not losing the hoe in the darkest period of life. The birds work hard and relentlessly to build the nest despite all problems. The students can learn to be optimistic and never lose focus on the work at hand. People do tiresome work but once they are back home with their family they forget the pain. They work harder to see the family happy, that much simple life is. Any time won’t be the toughest time of one’s life.

Chapter 9 – कबीर की साखियाँ कबीर:

In this chapter, written by Sant Kabir, the students will learn how to read a person the right way. A person must be judged by his intrinsic qualities and not by what he looks like. He teaches students to avoid aggravation by paying n attention if someone abuses them. He tells us to pray the God with a focused mind because that is the way it will reach him. Religion or cast is not greater than the qualities of a person and not getting suppressed is an indicator of mental toughness.

Chapter 10 – कामचोर (कहानी) – इस्मत चुगताई:

This chapter highlights the importance of doing every work within the time else it leads to laziness. Lazy children must be shown the right path or direction before it’s too late. In this story, all the children in a joint family get everything ready and become lazy. When their father tries to make them work in time, all go haphazard leading to family problems. The message is to take responsibility at the proper time to avoid laziness.

Chapter 11 – जब सिनेमा ने बोलना सीखा प्रदीप तिवारी:

This chapter is about the first talkie movie of Bollywood, ‘Alam Ara’, made in 1931. Ardeshir M Irani, impressed by a Hollywood movie, decided to make one in India. The story describes how he faced various issues but finally came out as a winner. This movie broke all the barriers in Bollywood as it also played the song and background music for the first time in the film industry.

Chapter 12 – सुदामा चरित (कविता) – नरोत्तमदास:

This well-known friendship story between Lord Krishna and his poor friend Sudama is compiled in the form of couplets. This structure of the poem is different for students and they can learn its making. The chapter tells the usual story of how Sudama made a visit to Lord Krishna’s palace and the meeting went well with Krishna being extremely happy. But he sends Sudama back empty-handed and the story ends with a delighted Sudama observing the gift of his friend Lord Krishna to not only him but to the whole village.

Chapter 13 – जहाँ पहिया है (रिपोर्ताज) – पी. साईनाथ (अनु.):

Evolution, social reform, and transformation are the key factors for the growth of any country. Women empowerment is long pending in India but has taken quite a speed now. The chapter is about a district Pudukottai, in Tamil Nadu, where the women are free and educated. They have self-belief and self-reliance as they ride a bicycle and go to work too.  the students will understand the importance of women’s empowerment if the nation is to grow exponentially.

Chapter 14 – अकबरी लोटा (कहानी) – अन्नपुर्णानंद वर्मा:

The story is about Lala Jhaulal who, with his presence of mind, sold an old lota for five hundred rupees to an Englishman. Though the story is not having much content it is interesting to know the behavior of people in different conditions and with different people. The chapter tells the students to use the right understanding at a crucial time.

Chapter 15 – सूरदास के पद (कवितासूरदास:

This is a short poem of two stanzas. The first mentions little Krishna is lured by his mother to drink milk regularly saying that his hair will grow fast. He follows what his mother says but sees no significant increase in hair which he complains to his mother. In the second stanza, the milkwoman often complains to Krishna’s mother about his mischief of consuming all the butter.

Chapter 16 – पानी की कहानी (निबंध) – रामचंद्र तिवारी:

This piece is nice prose by Ramachandra Tiwari. This explains the formation of clouds via seawater dewdrops. The clouds lead to rain and several streams of water are flown to the river returning to the sea. This natural cycle will enable students to learn it simply.

Chapter 17 – बाज और साँप (कहानी) – निर्मल वर्मा:

This chapter is a fictional tale narrated by Nirmal Verma which explains how the nature of different animals varies with their nature. This chapter tells the students about an eagle who despite being tries to fly and not rest. The snake thinks this behavior of the eagle is silly.

Chapter 18 – टोपी (कहानी) – सृंजय:

This chapter is written by Sanjay who has highlighted the social problems through this folktale. The story discusses the relations of the people with the ruling class. The writer has taken a small sparrow’s fight as an indication to tell the students to live with determination and effort. The story explains how even a small sparrow is empowered to bring forward the mistake of a powerful king. The story also highlights the issues of wages which is the right of a hard worker.

## Sanskrit

Chapter-wise summary

Chapter 1 – सुभाषितानि:

This chapter teaches the students about the good phrases of Sanskrit which are made by intellectual writers based on their observations and experiences. These phrases tell the students the summary of life like how all people are good but surroundings and situations change them. The example of a river is given here. A river when originates takes away very pure and potable water but once it meets the sea the water is no more potable.

Chapter 2 – बिलस्य वाणी कदापि मे श्रुता:

This chapter is taken from ‘Panchatantra’ by author Vishnu Sharma. This section is known as ‘Kakolukiya’. This was written to teach the five sons of King Amarshakti hence the five sections. There are several stories mostly on animals but intended for human beings. This chapter tells students a story of a lion ‘Kharankhar’ who was hunting and hiding in a cave as a process. A jackal arrived at the cave but got alerted seeing the paw marks. He smartly avoided being the prey of the lion.

Chapter 3 – डजीभारतम:

This chapter narrates the world of the internet. With the help of the internet, a simple click can land you in a sea of information. One can get the knowledge from the smallest creature to the highly developed human being. It can also give you information about every subject available in the world. This chapter is written keeping the internet as a central idea and explored a lot of options that have made our life easier.

Chapter 4 – सदैवपुरतो निधेहि चरणम्:

This song is compiled by Shridhar Bhaskar Vernekar who encourages the people to move ahead. This song teaches the students to accept and conquer the challenges in life. One must always move ahead despite the target being on a hilltop or a lot of thorns spread in the way. The writer alerts us of pointed stones which may come along in our path or other hurdles which we need o overcome.

Chapter 5 – कण्टकेनैव कण्टकम:

This chapter is a story in the style of ‘Panchatantra’. The story narrates about a huntsman who caught a tiger in his net. The tiger requested a release which he obliged only to find the tiger attacking him. Hunter complained about this to the river and the tree but neither helped him. Finally, with the help of the fox, he was able to catch the tiger again. The presence of the mind in a critical situation is very important.

Chapter 6 – गृहं शून्यं सुतां विना:

This chapter narrates the contrasting status of women in independent India. Once upon a time, women were strong, free, and fearless in taking decisions. They were also educated to help the family survive. The women like Gargi and Maitreyi from the Vedic age were having knowledge of science too. Later in some years, the condition of women was so pathetic that they were neither educated nor social. A lot of wrong rituals led to the downfall of women. This chapter will explain to the students how the initiative was taken to reform women again.

Chapter 7 – भारतजनताडहम्:

This poem is by Dr. Ramakant Shukl who is a ‘Rashtrapati’ and ‘Padmashri awardee. He is a proud son of Maa Sharda concerning the Sanskrit world. This modern poet’s poems are often read on Radio and Television. This poem will teach students about the interests and skills of Indian people.

Chapter 8 – संसारसागरस्य नायकाः

This chapter is written by Anupam Mishra and taken from his making ‘Aaj Bhi Khare Hai Talaab’. The lakes do not come up naturally but they are built and today we have forgotten all those makers. Those were the recognized people and knew the depths of the lakes too. the author tells the students to know those makers and respect them for their work.

Chapter 9 – सप्तभगिन्यः

‘Seven Sisters’, the concept of calling the central government ruled seven states of India. These are the states of the Northeast, out of 28 states, laced with natural beauty and amazing cultures. These states are Meghalaya, Manipur, Tripura, Nagaland, Mizoram, Arunachal, and Assam. The states are independent right from history and had no ruler at any time. The cultures of these states are way ahead of that of the other states and hence those are the best in India.

Chapter 10 – नीति नवनीतम्:

Sanskrit is rich in knowledge and science equally. The literature has things useful in routine life and the message is there in each step. When a person is having trouble, it teaches how to come of them. ‘Chanakya Niti’, ‘Vidur Niti’, and ‘Niti Shatak’ are indications of such knowledgeable information. ‘Manusmriti’ is a lesson that is built in a series of ‘Smriti’s. it says that a person respecting his parents and teachers lives long. It also mentions facing happiness and sorrow equally and remaining happy.

Chapter 11 – सावित्री बाई फुले:

This chapter is about ‘Savitribai Phule’, the first female teacher in Maharashtra. The society she belonged to was kept away from education for a long time for some reason. Having understood the power of an educated woman she took the initiative to teach poor girls from her surroundings. She got opposition from her community but continued the mission unperturbed by the hurdles. Finally, she succeeded in establishing many institutions for girls’ education and got recognition.

Chapter 12 – कः रक्षति कः रक्षतः

This chapter highlights the excessive use of plastic and its impact on the environment. It speaks about the sincere involvement of people to reduce environmental pollution. Paper bags and cloth bags were used which are not hazardous but now the ever-increasing use of plastic is alarming. Above all, throwing the waste plastic around irresponsibly makes it more difficult to handle. This chapter alerts the students of the dangerous human health hazard.

Chapter 13 – क्षितौ राजते भारतस्वर्णभूमिः

This chapter speaks about ancient India which used to be the ‘Golden Sparrow’ due to its richness. It had an aura and was a world leader showcasing its unity in diversity. This chapter also tells students about the richness of the country and praises Golden India. The chapter is written by Dr. Krushnachandra Tripathi.

Chapter 14 – आर्यभटः

This chapter is about renowned Indian scientist ‘Aryabhatta’, who highlighted the importance of ‘zero’. The claim received a whirlwind response globally as was never thought by any scientist before. At the age of 23, he wrote ‘Aryabhatiy’, his first creation. The resident of Patliputra also made everyone aware that the earth rotates around the sun while the sun is still and not vice versa, as it was believed earlier.

Chapter 15 – प्रहेलिकाः

Puzzles are ancient options for entertainment and education. They have great importance in literature too. the puzzles are available in every language and along with the joy, they teach a lot. This collection of puzzles n this chapter will enhance the knowledge of students.

## Sources for NCERT Solutions

Students can download the PDF format of the NCERT Solutions for Class 8 on the official website of NCERT.

The schools can help students to get the NCERT solutions.

Students can avail of these from a nearby book store.

Many educational websites carry the contents of solutions. The students can refer to these websites and make notes from them.

They are available on e-commerce websites such as Amazon where students can book orders online.

## Importance of Class 8 NCERT solutions

Class 8 is the foundation of two important years of 9th and 10th. Studying all subjects well will not only give students good marks but they will have great confidence too. While we know the importance of textbooks for any class, the importance of good teachers and NCERT Solutions for Class 8 must not underestimate. The teachers play a very important role in building a student’s career. We can see a lot of teachers taking great effort to make a student a good person too.

The teachers’ place in a student’s life is next to parents and they are equally responsible for the student’s behavior as they spend almost 6-7 hours with each other. Another factor that helps for improving the study is to refer to NCERT solutions. These are made by the field experts and they have done it keeping students’ viewpoints in mind and the answers are arranged in a flowing and easy language.

## Conclusion

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 will generously help students who genuinely want to build their careers by securing good marks at each level. The answers are designed for each subject by experienced people. For the ease of students, the books are now available online in PDF format. The students can download or study online from the official website of NCERT.

The important material provided here for English, Maths, Social Science, Science, Hindi, and Sanskrit are as per the syllabus. The NCERT Solutions for Class 8 consists of sample papers, previous question papers, important, questions, and revision notes.

## FAQs

### Why is Class 8 important?

Class 8 is the foundation for the next two important years class 9 & class 10, so it has its importance.

### Which solutions are available from NCERT for class 8?

NCERT Solutions for Class 8 consists of English, Hindi, Maths, Science, Social Science, and Sanskrit.

### Is Sanskrit difficult to score?

No, on the contrary, a student can get as high as full marks in Sanskrit.

### How many chapters are there in Science for class 8?

Class 8 Science will have a total of 16 chapters.

### How many chapters will Social Science have?

Social Science is made up of 3 subjects, History – 10 chapters, Geography- 6 chapters, and Civics – 9 chapters.

### Why is maths tough in class 8?

Practically, all syllabuses are arranged based on students’ IQ some students can find it hard but it is not very tough.

### Can it help if I use NCERT solutions from class 8?

Yes, it can. Since you will be familiar with the type of answers, you will find it better in class 10 so it will surely help.

### Other important Resources For CBSE Class 8 Exam

#### Robin Singh

Robin Singh is education professional tutor of NCERT. I have good knowledge of CBSE all subjects. Expert in maths, physics and chemistry. if students have any doubt about NCERT Solutions so contact us info@cbsenotes.in.

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