NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology 2021-22: Is your career in-line with the medical field, you need to perform best in Biology as it is a core subject. With CBSE NCERT Solutions that are considered to be a very helpful resource as you prepare for a board exam. CBSEnotes.in offers its user’s admission to a plentiful supply of questions and solutions. CBSE NCERT-Solutions is made by experts of the subject, thus, sure to help students in scoring higher marks.
At NCERT Solutions Biology textbook for class 12, the student will find full chapter detailed questions plus answers. Answers to every chapter are provided in a list that can be easily browsed.
NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Biology 2021-22 – Chapter Wise
Chapter 1: Reproduction in Organisms
In this chapter, the student will learn about the importance of reproduction & reproduction modes. Find out what is vegetative propagation & the reason the offspring of oviparous animals are in danger, unlike viviparous animals? The student will be taken through various terms including embryogenesis, zoospore, zygote, gametogenesis, juvenile phase, meiosis, etc.
Chapter 2: Sexual Reproduction to Flowering Plants
Chapter 2 concentrates on sexual reproduction to flowering plants along with structure, processes, & morphology. Moreover, it explains further concepts including pre-fertilization: Events & Structure, Port-fertilization: Events & Structure, Polyembryony, Double fertilization, & Apomixis.
Also, the student will learn how to draw & label diagrams like parts of a typical angiosperm ovule or look of a female-gametophyte on maturity.
Chapter 3: Human Reproduction
Here, the student will learn about the human male & female reproductive system. The flowcharts, diagrams, illustrations, simple language make the chapter comprehensive & simple to learn. Furthermore, the successive progress of topics assists us in retaining & grasping better.
Subtopics that are covered here include
- Systems of male reproductive
- Structures of reproductive
- Systems of female reproductive
- Sex hormones function
- Spermatogenesis & human reproduction introductory topics
Chapter 4: Reproductive Health
The chapter explains the significance of reproductive health to society. With the assistance of solutions to experts, understanding the way one answers questions like the reason to use contraceptives will be justified & the way infertile couples attempt to have kids.
The subtopics here includes
- Population Explosion & Birth Control
- Reproductive Health –Strategies and Problems
- Medical Pregnancy Termination
- STI (Sexually Transmitted Diseases)
Chapter 5: Principles of Variation and Inheritance
This chapter deals with topics like Mendelian Inheritance, inheritance of blood-groups, genetics, chromosome-theory of inheritance, Punnett square, etc. Through NCERT-Biology solutions, experts offer accurate points for distinguishing a Dominance-allele from a Recessive allele. Moreover, the student will revise on terms like homozygous, monohybrid, heterozygous, dihybrid, pedigree analysis, test cross & more.
Chapter Six: Molecular-Basis of Inheritance
This chapter consists of simplified diagrams which are provided to understand every structure of DNA, the replication process, RNA, etc.
Subtopics covered here include:
- Search for genetic material: Genetic material refers to DNA and properties of this genetic material.
- The DNA: polynucleotide chain Structure, DNA helix Packaging
- Transcription: Transcription unit, Transcription-unit & gene, Varieties of RNA & the transcription process
- The Lac-Operon.
- Replication: Experimental proof, enzymes, and the machinery
- Genetic code: Genetic code, mutations, and t RNA.
- Human-genome project
Chapter 7: Evolution
In Biology, evolution is a field that studies the life history on Earth. This Evolution Chapter deals with some subtopics including Origin of Life, Theory of Evolution, Adaptive Radiation, Evidence for Evolution, Biological Evolution, Evolution Mechanisms, Hardy-Weinberg principle, Origin & Evolution of the Man, etc.
Also in this chapter, you will understand the adaptive radiation concept & the reasons why the evolution of a human is considered adaptive radiation. The student will also find out animals’ evolutionary stages & learn to connect modern-day animals and the corresponding ancient-fossil.
Chapter 8: Human Health & Diseases
For a long time, health was considered as a state-of body & mind where there exists a balance of humor. Wellbeing is affected by
- Genetic disorders. This is a deficiency where a kid is born & deficiencies/defects that the kid inherits from the parents since birth
- Our lifestyle and the food plus water we consume rest & exercise us offer to our bodies, habits which we’ve or deficiency, etc. This chapter also consists of subtopics like the Common Diseases to Humans, Immunity, Cancer, AIDS, Alcohol & Drugs Abuse.
Other subtopics include pathogens; parasites that cause human diseases & their control; immunology basic concepts, vaccines, etc.
Chapter 9 : Strategies for Food Production Improvement
Due to population growth, there’s an improved need for increasing food production processes. Biological principles which are applied to plant breeding & animal farming play a significant role in improving the process of food production. There are numerous methods like tissue-culture techniques plus embryo transfer tech that improve the process more. This chapter covers concepts that include Tissue Culture, Single Cell-Proteins, Plant Breeding, and Animal Husbandry.
Chapter 10: Microbes in Human-Welfare
This textbook-solutions for the chapter assist you in studying the significance of microbes for sewage treatment, food processing, production of antibiotics, and energy generation. You will also understand the way microbes assist in regulatory diseases created by dangerous bacteria. Find out the way microbes are used as bio-fertilizers to guarantee decreased usage of pesticides & chemical fertilizers.
Chapter 11: Biotechnology Principles & Processes
Biotechnology explains the technique of utilizing enzymes or live organisms from organisms to create products & processes important to humans. In this chapter, you will be introduced to concepts around genetic engineering including bioreactors, PCR, Chitinase, downstream processing, the origin of application, Exonuclease, Plasmid DNA, Chromosomal DNA, etc. The student will receive answers on recombinant proteins utilized in medical practice plus their applications. Moreover, the practice method was utilized by experts for creating a palindromic-DNA sequence utilizing base-pair rules.
Chapter 12: Biotechnology & its Application
Here, the students will study the way human beings uses biotechnology in improving human life quality particularly in the area of health and food production. Biotechnology offers humans numerous beneficial products using microbes, animals, plants & their metabolic machinery.
Chapter 13: Organisms & Populations
This chapter involves a discussion on biological organization’s 4 levels – organisms, biomes, populations & communities. Ecology at population & organismic levels are explained in depth. It also contains concepts including Organisms & their Populations and Environment.
Here, you will find diagrams, flowcharts, illustrations, & simple language which make this chapter to be comprehensive & simple to learn. Furthermore, the successive progress of these topics that relate to each other helps the learner to retain & grasp better.
Chapter 14: Ecosystem
An Ecosystem is considered as a nature’s-functional unit where living things live & interact together and with the surrounding physical environment. The chapter will start by explaining the structure of an ecosystem. This assists in understanding input, output, and energy transfer. Moreover, you will also find the relationships created the reason being the energy-flows in the system & the inter-relationship, including chains, cycles, and webs. Some subtopics that are covered in this chapter include Structure & purpose of Ecosystem, productivity, Decomposition, Energy Flow, Ecological Pyramids, Ecological Succession, Nutrient Cycling, and Ecosystem Services.
Chapter 15: Biodiversity & its Conservation
In this chapter, the students will study the significance of biodiversity, its patterns, types, evolution, conservation, and degradation.
A few other topics that are covered in this chapter include genetic diversity, latitudinal gradients, species diversity, species-area relationship, in-situ conservation, causes of biodiversity losses & ex-situ conservation.
Chapter 16: Environmental Issues
Chapter sixteen is meant to make one aware of different environmental matters including air pollution, ozone-layer depletion, water pollution, etc. This chapter helps the learner understand the causes plus preventive ways for tackling ecological issues. Moreover, the learner will also understand what’s global warming, what causes it & how one can reduce global warming. The learner will study other terms like eutrophication, e-wastes, radioactive wastes, municipal solid wastes, & more.
Advantages of NCERT-Solutions for Class 12 Biology
- Well written & researched by experienced teachers
- Latest value-based questions that have solutions in every chapter
- Simple language and jargon-free
- Content expressed with CBSE curriculum requirement
- Wide coverage of basic concepts
- The best resource of CBSE-board exam preparation