Morphology of flowering plants, Morphology is a branch of science that studies the shape and structure of objects. Regardless of which plant it is, the roots, stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits are all part of the morphology of a flowering plant.
What is the definition of morphology?
Morphology is the branch of science concerned with the study of organisms’ structure, characteristics, and form. Flowering plants (Angiosperms) have a wide structural diversity that fascinates us, but despite this, they share several common characteristics. Roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds are all examples. As a result, these five similar traits may be found in the morphology of all angiosperms.
With 300,000 species, flowering plants are the most varied group of land plants. Angiosperms are angiosperms that produce seed-bearing fruits. During the Triassic period, flowering plants developed from gymnosperms, and the first flowering plant appeared 140 million years ago.
Flowers are blooming plants’ reproductive organs and the primary distinguishing feature that sets them apart from other seed plants. These factors have resulted in angiosperm speciation, which allows plants to adapt to a variety of ecological niches.
Pollination is the process through which flowering plants reproduce. Pollen grains are transferred from the male flower’s anther to the female flower’s stigma, where fertilisation and seed formation take place.
When it comes to the morphology of blooming plants, there are two systems to consider: the root system and the shoot system. The root is the underground part, while the shoot is the part that is above it.
A plant’s root is a brown, nongreen, subterranean portion. A root system is a collection of roots and their branches. The root system can be divided into three categories:
Taproots are found mostly in dicotyledonous plants. The taproot system grows from the radicle of the developing seed, together with its primary roots and branches. Dicotyledonous plants with taproot systems include mustard seeds, mangoes, grammes, and banyan
The Fibrous root System
Ferns, as well as all monocotyledonous plants, have fibrous roots. Thin, moderately branched roots or primary roots grow from the stem to form this root. Because the fibrous root system rarely penetrates deep into the soil, when fully mature, these roots resemble a mat or carpet on the floor. Monocotyledonous plants with fibrous root systems include wheat, rice, grass, carrots, onion, and grass.
The Adventitious root System
The adventitious root system refers to roots that arise from any part of the plant body other than the radicle. All monocotyledonous plants have this type of root system. The adventitious root system is employed by plants for a variety of purposes, including mechanical support, vegetative propagation, and so on. Monocotyledonous plants having an adventitious root system include the banyan tree, maize, oak trees, and horsetails.
The stem is an important part of the plant as well. It’s the part of the plant axis that bears branches, leaves, flowers, and fruits, as well as assisting with water and mineral conduction. It is the plant’s aerial component, which is formed from the plumule of an embryo or germinating seeds. Young stems are generally green, but they become woody and brown over time. The stem is transformed into various forms depending on the function.
Plants rely on stems for axial stability. They are autotrophic and grow above ground. They grow in the direction of light, away from the soil. A terminal bud can be found at the stem’s apex. The young stems are a bright green colour. The stem develops a protective covering that is brown and tough as the plant matures into a tree.
In a laterally borne structure, the leaf is flattened. It is the major photosynthetic component of the plant. It absorbs light and allows gases to pass through the stomata.
The three basic portions of the leaf are the leaf base, petiole, and lamina. At the axial, they create a bud and grow at the node. The arrangement of veins and veinlets in a leaf is called venation. The photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll provides the leaves with their green colour, and they have a tiny pore or aperture called stomata where gaseous exchange takes place. Leaf base, petiole, and lamina are three different portions of the leaf.
Flowering plants’ reproductive organs are their flowers. They’re brilliant, colourful, and most of them have a pleasant aroma. This is done to attract insects and birds, who then act as carriers or vectors for pollen grain transmission. They reproduce through pollination (cross and self-pollination). On the floral axis, flowers or a bouquet are placed in a specific way. The inflorescence is the name for this phenomenon.
The seed is what the ovules develop into after fertilisation, and the ripened or mature ovary is the defining feature of flowering plants. A parthenocarpic fruit grows without being fertilised. Flowers give rise to fruits.
The flowering plant’s seed is an essential component. It is found encased within the plant’s fruit. The embryo is protected by the seed coat, which is a protective coating on the outside of the seed. Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons are two types of seeds that differ in the number of cotyledons contained inside the seed.
A seed is a plant’s basic component that is found inside the fruit. The embryo is made up of a seed coat and an embryo. During fruit production, the ovary wall converts into the pericarp. Certain plants’ ovary walls dry out completely, whereas others’ ovary walls remain mushy.