For students who don’t like history much, it will be tough to sustain the class 8 social science subject. But the students who are focused on students any subject are the same. In schooling days it is not the interest that helps you but it is the application of mind that will take you through the exams successfully. This is the reason NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science helps students excessively to get the desired score. Social science has three subjects and that is another point of dislike for students. Many students do not like history or civics so they can be helped if they learn solutions along with regular textbooks.
Though students may feel the subject is low-profile, it plays a very important role to improve their general knowledge as well as awareness. While studying civics, students will know what are the responsibilities of government and citizens to keep the nation good.
Chapter-wise summary: –
History: – Our Past – III
Chapter 1 – How, When, and Where
This chapter will let you understand the incidences and main activities in the country in the past. Students must learn to remember the correct date of a particular incident that happened in the historic era. There will be many such dates one needs to remember. This chapter talks about the following topics –
Importance of the dates: –
- Which dates?
- How do we periodize?
- What is colonial?
How do we know? : –
- Administration produces records
- Surveys become important
- What official records do not tell?
Chapter 2 – From Trade to Territory the Company Establishes Power
This chapter explains the advent of European power in India. The chapter speaks about the death and subsequent fall of the Mughal rule and how Nawabs disintegrated with the Mughal Empire. The students can learn about the establishment and growth of the East India Company which was allowed only for trade in India but later ruled the country. The battles of Plassey and Buxer, the establishment of the first factory near Hooghly River, the introduction of the land revenue system, and the spread of the East India Company across the country.
Chapter 3 – Ruling the Countryside
This chapter tells how East India Company took over the administration of Bengal. Students can learn about Diwani Rights by Robert Clive and also the takeover in Orissa and Bihar. The following topics are of main importance in the chapter –
- The Company becomes the Diwan
- The need for agricultural improvement
- The Munro system
- Revenue for the company
- The problem
- The country is not well
- A new system is devised
- Crops for Europe
- Why the demand for Indian indigo?
- Indigo on the land of ryots
- Does color have a history?
- Britain turns to India
- The problem with Nij cultivation
- Cultivation of indigo
Chapter 4 – Tribals, Dikus, and the Vision of a Golden Age
In this chapter, students will learn about the different categories of people like tribals and shifting cultivators & herders. The students will understand the problems faced by tribals with money lenders, traders, and Europeans who were called ‘Dikus’. Students will also learn about tribal leader Birsa Munda who revolted against the Europeans for the lands of the tribals. The students will know how the tribal groups lived, jhum cultivators, hunters & gatherers, animal herding, settled cultivation, problems of tribal chiefs, shifting of cultivators, forest laws, and problems with the trade.
Chapter 5 – When People Rebel 1857 and After
This chapter talks about the diminishing power of Nawabs, conditions of Indian peasants & sepoys, discrimination of sepoys, and the revolt of 1857. The students will learn the important phases of a country like policies & the people, what people thought as masses, popular rebellion, EIC’s fight back, and aftermath.
Chapter 6 – Weavers, Iron Smelters, and Factory Owners
This chapter will tell the students how weavers and iron smelters exercised their livelihood under colonial rule. Here, the export of Indian cloth to Europe, the suppression of the Indian weavers by the British Textile industry, and the role of TISCO are also discussed. The students will understand that India was a strong exporter of cloth to the European market and traded till the Company took over. Thereafter the Indian weavers were made dependent by applying various tricks by the company rulers. The chapter will open the eyes of the student to know how India was made to down on its knees by the British leaders.
Chapter 7 – Civilising the ‘Native’, Educating the Nation
This chapter will teach the students how the British got involved in the education system in India and interfered with a lot of things. Though India had its education system the British insisted that it is ancient the more civilization is required. From this chapter, students will learn the views of James Mill and Thomas Macaulay on one side and William Jones on the other. Students will also learn the opinions of Mahatma Gandhi and Rabindra Nath Tagore on the British education system which they thought is enslavement.
Chapter 8 – Women, Cast, and Reform
This chapter deals with the reform in favor of women, anti-casteism, and other relevant topics. Students will study how the nature and history of gender inequality were there in India. Students will learn about the sorrow of widows, illiteracy among girl children, and the pathetic conditions of lower caste people. They will also know the vital roles of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Jyoti Rao Phule, and others in reforming the education structure for girls and women.
Chapter 9 – The Making of the National Movement: 1870s – 1947
This chapter speaks about the beginning and process of the freedom fight against British rule. The students will understand how nationalists’ woke up and started to unite for the fight against enslavement, the role of Congress in the freedom struggle, the impact of the 1st and 2nd World Wars, different thought processes among the freedom fighters, and a lot of relevant agitations in the country.
Chapter 10 – India after Independence
This chapter will teach the students about the freedom day on 15th August 1947, the subsequent partition, several problems of refugees, princely states, and the poor economic states. Students will know about the writing of several laws and the formation of the constitution of India. Indian democratic features like ‘unity in diversity and sovereignty are also discussed. Students will learn how the states were formed after India’s independence.
Geography: Resources and Development
Chapter 1 – Resources
In this chapter, students will learn about natural and human-made resources. The types of resources available on the earth and the current status of these resources are also discussed. The students will also understand the importance of the conservation of the current resources.
Chapter 2 – Land, Soil, Water, Natural Vegetation, and Wildlife Resources
Land, soil, and water are abiotic resources and are the most important resources. The chapter also discusses biotic resources like natural vegetation and wildlife resources. To maintain the longevity of both abiotic and biotic exhaustible resources it is important to enhance the judicial use of these resources. The land covers 30 percent of the total area of the earth’s surface. Thus 90 percent of the population covers only 30 percent of the land. Students can learn the following topics in this chapter –
- Conservation of land resources
- Uses of land
- Water, the problem of water availability, and conservation of water
- Natural vegetation and wildlife, its distribution, and conservation
- Soil, soil formation, factors affecting soil formation, degradation, and conservation of soil.
Chapter 3 – Mineral and Power Resources
Minerals are naturally occurring substances and have definite chemical compositions. They are formed in different geological conditions and different conditions. These are non-renewable resources and are defined basis their physical properties like color, hardness, density, and chemical properties such as solubility. The students will learn about types of minerals based on composition, classification into metallic and non-metallic types, properties of both metallic and non-metallic minerals, conventional sources, and non-conventional sources of minerals.
Chapter 4 – Agriculture
The students will learn that agriculture is a science of farming with the cultivation of the soil and growing the crops. It also includes the rearing of animals to produce food, wool, and other products. The students will know the two types of farming subsistence farming (to fulfill the family’s needs) and shifting cultivation (cultivating a piece of land by burning the vegetation on the land). Students can also learn nomadic herding, commercial farming, mixed farming, plantations, major crops, and agricultural development.
Chapter 5 – Industries
Industrial activities can include the production of goods, extraction of minerals, or the provision of services. The students can learn about primary sectors, secondary sectors, tertiary sectors, raw materials, size of industries, small scale industries, large scale industries, factors affecting the location of the industries, and development of industries from this chapter.
Chapter 6 – Human Resource
People are the biggest source of any requirement. A human resource helps build the nation and supports generously the growth of any nation. However, the development and the density of the population are not necessarily directly proportional. What needs for the development of a country is a skill. This chapter will help the student to learn how a human resource is favorable if the population is highly skilled. The students can understand –
- Population change and reasons for changes in population.
- The pattern of population change.
- Factors affecting the distribution of population such as soil, climate, water, topography, minerals, and social, economic, and cultural factors.
- Population compositions and population pyramid.
- Natural growth rate, birth rate, death rate, and life expectancy.
Civics: Social and Political Life – II
Chapter 1 – The Indian Constitution
From this chapter, the students will study about Indian constitution and how it formed a proper government scheme for the people of the country. It underlines the importance of democracy in the constitution of India. The students will learn the following key features of the Indian constitution –
- Separation of powers: judiciary, legislature, and executive
- Federalism: the existence of more than one level of the government.
- Secularism: a country promoting religious freedom for all citizens.
- Parliamentary form of government: the right to vote for each citizen irrespective of caste or religion.
- Fundamental rights: the six major fundamental rights for every citizen as per the Indian constitution.
Chapter 2 – Understanding Secularism
This chapter details the fundamental rights of religious freedom. A secular country gives permission to all citizens to follow the religion of their choice. No pressure on choice while the majority also cannot dictate its term. The students will understand the importance of secularism and they will know how to develop ‘country first followed by religion’ status. This chapter will teach students to understand the concept of secularism and why it is important to have fundamental rights of freedom of religion.
Chapter 3 – Why Do We Need a Parliament?
This chapter tells the student about the functions of the parliament and its connection to the idea of elections and democracy. Students will learn how people have the choice to elect their representatives and the importance of the role of parliament. Created after 1947, the parliament can be defined as an expression of the faith that the people of India have democratic principles. The parliament consists of a President, Lok Sabha, and Rajya Sabha. Law-making is also an important role of the Indian parliament.
Chapter 4 – Understanding Laws
The chapter states the importance of laws and how the constitution set the rules and laws common for everyone. The difference between British laws and post-independence Indian laws is also discussed. The students will know how the laws came into action and the role of parliament in it. Major laws like a law against domestic violence are discussed in the chapter and controversial and unpopular laws are also mentioned.
Chapter 5 – Judiciary
This chapter speaks about the judiciary system. Laws apply equally to all persons and if one is violated certain procedures need to be followed including the mechanism of courts. Citizens can follow the procedure to approach the court if a law is violated. The role of the judiciary includes dispute resolution, judicial review, upholding the law, and enforcing fundamental rights. The students will also learn about an independent judiciary, separation of powers, a case of 1985, and branches of a legal system, the difference between criminal & civil law, and rights to access the courts.
Chapter 6 – Understanding Our Criminal Justice System
- The students will learn the following things from this chapter –
- First Information Report: It is FIR, registration for the police to begin their investigations into a crime. The officer is bound to file an FIR in case of a complaint from a person for a cognizable offense. The information can be oral or written.
- Article 22 of the constitution and criminal law states the fundamental rights of an arrested person.
- Fair trial
- The role of the police in investigating crime: The police and the agencies must follow certain procedures under specific requirements to make an arrest, interrogation, and detention of a person.
- Role of a public prosecutor: Once the police conduct the investigation and file the chargesheet in the court, the public prosecutor’s role begins. Depending upon the description in law the person gets jailed or fined or both.
Chapter 7 – Understanding Marginalisation
Economic, social, political, and cultural factors lead to the marginalization of certain groups. Marginalization is feeling excluded from the socio-economical society. This may be due to the low and poor status of the community or differences in language, culture, or religion. Marginalized groups are usually seen with fear and hostility. This chapter states about two communities considered marginalized socially today. The chapter also discusses adivasis and its socio-economical development.
Chapter 8 – Confronting Marginalisation
This chapter talks about how adivasis, women, dalits, and muslims are making it a point of equality. The students will learn about –
- Laws for the marginalized
- Adivasis demands and the 1989 Act
- Invoking fundamental rights
- The Scheduled Caste and Scheduled Tribe
- Protecting the rights of Dalits and Adivasis
Chapter 9 – Public Facilities
The facilities given by the government to the people of the country to sustain and lead a comfortable life are public facilities. The students will learn the following topics from this chapter –
- Water as a part of fundamental rights to life: Water is essential for life and good health.
- Public facilities: Things like electricity, schools, colleges, public transport, etc are necessary for survival and are known as public facilities. They are provided for the benefit of society.
- Safe water: Safe drinking water comes under public facilities and must be provided for the people to maintain better health.
- The government’s role: The role also includes providing education through the network of schools and colleges. Equal distribution of food, and improving health & sanitation facilities are all the responsibility of the government
- Universal access to water under Article 21 as India is having the highest water-related diseases reported.
Chapter 10 – Law and Social Justice
To ensure the unfair practices are kept at a minimum, the government puts forward some laws to protect people from exploitation. The government also makes sure the laws are enforced. From this chapter, the students can learn the right against exploitation through creating, upholding, and enforcing these laws. Students will also know about –
The extent of laws address the social justice concerns of the people
- How laws are played out in practice?
- What are workers worth?
- New laws to protect the environment
- The Bhopal Gas Tragedy
- Enforcement of safety laws.
Scope for Social Science: –
Not all can be Doctors or Engineers so average people must think of careers outside these faculties. There are job opportunities in every field but doctors and engineers are so prominent that almost all other streams get washed out. Students with out-of-box thinking can pursue a career in Social Science. Not surprisingly, there are several opportunities waiting in the wing for the aspirants. Guided by NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science the students can score very good marks. Let us have a look at the best of the career opportunities –
- Political scientist
- Industrial-Organizational Psychologist
- Urban and Regional Planner
- Anthropologist and Archaeologist
- Survey Researcher
Sources for solutions for Class 8 Social Science: –
- Students can avail of solutions online in PDF from the official website of NCERT.
- One can get the books from a nearby book store.
- Students can avail of the books with the help of their school.
- They can search on other educational websites and make notes from there.
- Students can order books online through e-commerce websites too.
Importance of Social Science
Many feel why study history when it is already past. But those students must understand that there is everything to learn from the past. In addition, we must know about our ancestors and what achievements they did. It is also needed to motivate yourself about the ability to do well. Geography tells you about the world along with your country. It is all knowledge about the climatic conditions, the crop, the people, and the animals on the planet as well as the country.
The knowledge about the constitution is very critical at this stage for students as they are supposed to step into the outer world. They must be aware of what is panned around them outside and how they have to behave. All three subjects are essentially important for the students as they are planned to guide them on the right path with the help of NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science.
Social science is an important subject to learn at this stage of schooling. It not only helps students to know the history but also provides a base on how to cater in life next. History makes the students understand the rich culture of their country while Geography teaches them how beautiful their country is.
Civics makes the most near to everyone’s life as it contains all that is needed in everyday life. The knowledge of the constitution, laws, reforms, and a lot of things can be learned. NCERT Solutions for Class 8 Social Science makes it easy for students to understand the subject and it gives them the confidence to get good grades in exams.
What are the subjects taught under the class 8 Social Science syllabus?
There are three subjects under Social Science, History, Geography, and Civics.
What is the benefit of learning History?
Learning History makes the student understand the effort taken by the people earlier. It shows the culture and historical activities which can be used in the future as a reference.
Why is Geography important to learn?
Geography gives the students an insight into the country’s location, climatic conditions, surrounding countries, and their impact on our country, etc.
How many chapters are included in class 8 Civics?
There are about 10 chapters students will need to learn. The chapter covers the overall civil system of India including the constitution and the laws.
How many books are there for the class 8 Social Science syllabus?
There are three textbooks for class 8 Social Science. Resource and Development for Geography, Our Pasts III for History, and Social and Political Life for Civics.
Will I get a job by graduating in Political Science?
Yes, students can get various jobs if they do graduation in Political Science.
What is the significance of Social Science in our daily life?
Social Science is about past and present and most parts are useful in daily life like information about the making of laws and the rights of common people.