NCERT Biology Chapter 4 Reproductive Health Solved Textbook Questions
1. What do you think is the significance of reproductive health in a society?
Ans- Reproductive health refers to complete physical, emotional, behavioral and social well being n all aspects of reproduction. The significance of reproductive health is as follows:
- Attainment of reproductive health can possible reduces the chances of STDs such as AIDS, hepatitis, gonorrhoea etc. as a reproductively healthy society has knowledge about transmission of these diseases, th8s these can be prevented.
- In a reproductively healthy society, people will have knowledge about birth control and family planning, thus aiding in population control.
2. Suggest the aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario.
Ans- The aspects of reproductive health which need to be given special attention in the present scenario are as follows:
- Spreading of proper information about reproductive organs, STDs, AIDS etc.
- Educating people about different kinds of birth control options, taking care of pregnant ladies, postnatal care for child and mother as well.
3. Is sex education necessary in schools? Why?
Ans- Introduction of sex education in schools is necessary. It would provide right information to young individuals at the right time about various aspects of reproductive health such as reproductive organs, puberty, and adolescence related changes, safe sexual practices, sexually transmitted diseases, etc.
The young individual or adolescents are more susceptible in acquiring various sexually transmitted diseases. Hence, providing information to them at the right time would help them to lead a reproductively healthy life and also protect them from the myths and misconceptions about various sex related issues.
4. Do you think that reproductive health in our country has improved in the past 50 years? If yes, mention some such areas of improvement.
Ans- Yes, the reproductive health has tremendously improved in India in the last 50 years. The areas of improvement are as follows:
- Massive child immunization programme, which has lead to a decrease in the infant mortality rate.
- Maternal and infant mortality rate, which has been decreased drastically due to better post natal care.
- Family planning, which has motivated people to have smaller families.
5. What are the suggested reasons for population explosion?
Ans- The human population is increasing day by day, leading to population explosion. It is because of the following two major reasons. Decreased death rate Increased birth rate and longevity.
The death rate has decreased in the past 50 years. The factor leading to decreased death rate and increased birth rate are control of diseases, awareness and spread of education, improvement in medical facilities, ensured food supply in emergency situation, etc. All this has also resulted in an increase in the longevity of an individual.
6. Is the use of contraceptives justified? Give reasons.
Ans- Yes, the use of contraceptives is absolutely justified. The human population is increasing tremendously. Therefore, to regulate the population growth by regulating reproduction has become a necessary demand in the present times.
Various contraceptive devices have been devised to reduce unwanted pregnancies, which help in bringing down the increased birth rate and hence, in checking population explosion.
7. Removal of gonads cannot be considered as a contraceptive option. Why?
Ans- Contraceptive devices are used to prevent unwanted pregnancy and to prevent the spreading of STDs. There are many methods, such as natural, barrier, oral, and surgical methods, that prevent unwanted pregnancy. However, the complete removal of gonads cannot be a contraceptive option because it will lead to infertility and unavailability of certain hormones that are required for normal functioning of accessory reproductive parts. Therefore, only those contraceptive methods can be used that prevent the chances of fertilization rather than making the person infertile forever.
8. Amniocentesis for sex determination is banned in our country. Is this ban necessary? Comment.
Ans- Amniocentesis is a process that was used to find any kind of abnormalities in the foetus.
However. this technique was misused to find sex of the child. Some parents used to abort their female child before being born. Thus in order to reduce female foeticides, the ban on amniocenteses is necessary
9. Suggest some methods to assist infertile couples to have children.
Ans- Infertility is the inability of a couple to produce a baby even after unprotected intercourse. It might be due to abnormalities present in either male or female, or might be even both the partners. The techniques used to assist infertile couples to have children are as follows.
- Test tube babies- This involves in-vitro fertilization where the sperms meet the egg outside the body of a female. The zygote, hence produced, is then transferred in the uterus or fallopian tube of a normal female. The babies produced from this method are known as test tube babies.
- Gamete Intra fallopian transfer (GIFT)- It is a technique that involves the transfer of gamete (ovum) from a donor into the fallopian tube of the recipient female who is unable to produce eggs, but has the ability to conceive and can provide right conditions for the development of an embryo.
- Intra Cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)- It is a method of injecting sperm directly into the ovum to form an embryo in laboratory.
- Artificial insemination- Artificial insemination is a method of transferring semen (sperm) from a healthy male donor into the vagina or uterus of the recipient female. It is employed when the male partner is not able to inseminate the female or has low sperm counts
10. What are the measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs?
Ans- The measures one has to take to prevent from contracting STDs are as follows:
- Always use condoms while having intercourse.
- We must avoid having sex with an unknown partner or multiple partners.
- We should maintain sex hygiene and must consult a physician if any symptoms are found.
11. State True/False with explanation
(a) Abortions could happen spontaneously too. (True/False)
(b) Infertility is defined as the inability to produce a viable offspring and is always due to abnormalities/defects in the female partner. (True/False)
(c) Complete lactation could help as a natural method of contraception. (True/False)
(d) Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve reproductive health of the people. (True/False)
Ans- (a) True, abortion which is medical termination of pregnancy can happen spontaneously too.
(b) False, Male partner could also be responsible for infertility.
(c) True, During complete lactation, no ovulation takes place so no menstrual cycle and no chances of fertilization.
(d) True, Creating awareness about sex related aspects is an effective method to improve the reproductive health of the people.
12. Correct the following statements :
(a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation.
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women.
(d) In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus.
Ans- (a) Surgical methods of contraception prevent gamete formation. Correction Surgical methods of contraception prevent the flow of gamete during intercourse.
(b) All sexually transmitted diseases are completely curable. Correction Some of the sexually transmitted diseases are curable if they are detected early and treated properly. AIDS is still an incurable disease.
(c) Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among the rural women. Correction Oral pills are very popular contraceptives among urban women.
(d) In E. T. techniques, embryos are always transferred into the uterus. Correction In embryo transfer technique, 8 celled embryos are transferred into the fallopian tube while more than 8 celled embryos are transferred into the uterus.